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‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Note you can select to send to either the @free.or @variations. In one plane, the electric conductivity is high compared to a direction perpendicular to the plane.When applying large magnetic fields exactly parallel to the ET layers in this planes clear evidence for the existence of the FFLO state was found in the specific heat of two different ET-based superconductors.

If instead one considers the normal, metallic state at the same finite magnetic field, then the Zeeman energy leads to different Fermi surfaces for spin-up and spin-down electrons, which can lead to superconducting pairing where Cooper pair singlets are formed with a finite center-of-mass momentum q, corresponding to the displacement of the two Fermi surfaces.In particular, orbital pair breaking (when the vortices induced by the magnetic field overlap in space) has to be weaker, which is not the case for most conventional superconductors.Certain unusual superconductors, on the other hand, may favor Pauli pair breaking: materials with large effective electron mass or layered materials (with quasi-two-dimensional electrical conduction).A non-vanishing pairing momentum leads to a spatially modulated order parameter with wave vector q.For the FFLO phase to appear, it is required that Pauli paramagnetic pair-breaking is the relevant mechanism to suppress superconductivity (Pauli limiting field, also Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit).

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